Psychology Glossary – Terms [I]
Id: One of the three aspects of the human psyche defined in Sigmund Freud’s structural model (id, ego, super-ego). According to this model, the id represents the primitive, unconscious part of the personality that operates on instinctual trends and impulses in the pursuit of pleasure.
Idealism: A branch of philosophy based on the assertion that reality as we know it is mentally constucted – our human ideas, beliefs, and values shape our self-perception and our overall society.
Identity: A sense of self; the perception or condition of being oneself; the qualities and beliefs that distinguish or identify a person or thing
Individuation: The developmental process of integrating the conscious, subconscious, and experiences of a person’s life into a functioning whole – the achievement of self-actualization and creation of individuality separate from the identities of others.
Intensive Outpatient Program: An Intensive Outpatient Program (IOP) is a primary treatment and support program used to treat a variety of psychiatric problems, including eating disorders, depression, self-harm, and chemcial dependency without detoxification. The programs are recommended by clinical and medical professionals to provide assessment and services at lower costs than inpatient rehab or for those in need of additional recovery systems. IOPs typically last about 4-6 weeks, with clients attending multiple weekly individual and group counseling sessions. IOPs are considered when a person doing individual therapy requires a higher level of support and also as a step-down or transition from an inpatient program. People attending IOPs can typically still maintain their daily responsibilities, like going to work, because the services are offered in the evening and/or on weekends.
Psychology Glossary – Terms [J]
William James: An American philosopher and psychologist born in 1842 and considered one of the founders of functional psychology. James was the first educator to offer a psychology course in the U.S., co-founded the philosophical school of pragmatism, and developed the philosophical perspective known as radical empiricism.
Susan Johnson: Sue Johnson is a clinical psychologist, researcher, author, and innovator in the field of couples therapy. Johnson’s study of attachment, bonding, and her emphasis on emotions and emotional process led to the development of Emotionally Focused Couples Thearpy (EFT). Johnson is founding Director of the International Centre for Excellence in Emotionally Focused Therapy. Learn more: drsuejohnson.com.
Carl Jung: Carl Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology. Originally a close colleage of Sigmund Freud, Jung’s publication in 1912 of his book, Psychology of the Unconscious, caused significant disagreement and ended their relationship. Individuation is one of the central concepts in Jung’s theories and understandings of human development. He is also responsible for the creation of some of the most well known psychological concepts including the collective unconscious, extraversion and introversion, archetypal phenomena, synchronicity, and the psychological complex.
Joy: The emotion or expression of great delight, pleasure, or happiness typically caused by the subjective experience of something exceptionally good.
Judgment: Forming an opinion or drawing a conclusion from circumstances presented to the mind; also used in reference to the quality of cognitive ability of an individual. Alternatively, in Buddhist Psychology, the term ‘judgment’ typically refers to unnecessarily critical thoughts, as in being judgmental of oneself of others.
Psychology Glossary – Terms [K]
Keystone Habits: Small changes or habits introduced into a person’s routine that correlate with other good habits. Examples are regular exercise, meditating, or sleeping eight hours a night; these keystone habits lead to the development of multiple good habits and start a chain effect producing more positive outcomes in one’s life.
Kinship: The feeling of being connected to other people. Kinship may refer to a similarity or affinity shared through a historical, cultural, or perceived connection.
Melanie Klein: Melanie Klein was a pioneering child analyst from Central Europe and considered one of the founding figures of psychoanalysis through her work and study with young children. She co-founded the object relations theory and was innovative in her techniques and theories concerning infant development.
Jack Kornfield: Jack Kornfield is one of the key teachers to introduce Buddhist mindfulness practice to the West. He co-founded both the Insight Meditation Society in Massachusetts and the Spirit Rock Center in California. He holds a Ph.D in clinical psychology and has taught meditation internationally since 1974. Learn more: jackkornfield.com.
Ron Kurtz: Ron Kurtz was the original developer of the Hakomi Method of Mindfulness-Centered Somatic Psychotherapy in the mid-1970s and founded the Hakomi Institute in 1981. Hakomi is a complex form of psychotherapy rooted in scientific, psychological, and spiritual sources while relying on core concepts of nonviolence, compassion, and mindfulness. Kurtz evolved past the origins of Hakomi and continued thinking, writing, and teaching about ways to reduce suffering through “mindfulness-based assisted self discovery” until his death in 2011.
Psychology Glossary – Terms [L]
Labeling Theory: This theory addresses how people self-identify and behave based on the way others have labeled or classified them. Labeling theory suggests that deviance is not inherent to an action; instead, through stereotyping, majorities negatively label minorities or groups deviant from standard cultural norms and this changes a person’s social identity resulting in self-fulfilling prophecy and distorted social identity.
Ellen Langer: Ellen Langer is a social psychologist and the first female professor to gain tenure in the Psychology Department at Harvard University. She studies the illusion of control, decision-making, aging, and mindfulness theory. Through her writing and teachings, Langer has had significant influence on the positive psychology movement and continues to demonstrate how our perception of limitations are self constructed. Learn more: ellenlanger.com.
Leadership: The process of social influence in which an individual or organization, thinks about, guides and directs a group towards a common task through the development of vision and the use of inspirational techniques.
Stephen (and Ondrea) Levine: An American author and teacher best known for his work on death and dying, but a pioneer in his approach to working with the experience of grief by acknowledging that “our ordinary, everyday grief” accumulates as well; this leads to a deluge of grief, both old and new, when a loved one dies. Levine was significantly influenced by the teachings of the Theravada branch of Buddhism and was one of the initial teachers to make it available to students in the U.S. Stephen and his wife Ondrea are the authors of several books about dying, counselled on grief for 34 years and spent one year living as if it were their last. Learn more: levinetalks.com.
Kurt Lewin: A German-American psychologist born in 1890, Lewin is considered one of the modern pioneers of social, organization, and applied psychology in the U.S. He was one of the first to study group dynamics and organizational development. His field approach and commitment to applying psychology to the problems of society led to the development of the M.I.T. Research Center for Group Dynamics.