What is EMDR?

(Source: EMDRIA – The EMDR International Association)

“EMDR stands for “Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing.” EMDR is a very powerful method of psychotherapy. To date, EMDR has helped an estimated two million people of all ages relieve many types of psychological distress.

How was EMDR developed?
How does EMDR work?
What is an actual EMDR session like?
How long does EMDR take?
What kinds of problems can EMDR treat?
But does EMDR really work?

EMDR can be thought of as a physiologically based therapy that helps a person see disturbing material in a new and less distressing way.

How was EMDR Developed?
In 1987, psychologist Dr Francine Shapiro made the chance observation that eye movements can reduce the intensity of disturbing thoughts, under certain conditions. Dr Shapiro studied this effect scientifically, and in 1989 issue of the journal of Traumatic stress, she reported success using EMDR to treat victims of trauma. Since then, EMDR had developed and evolved through the contributions of therapists and researchers all over the world. Today EMDR is a set of standardized protocols that incorporates elements from any different approaches.

How Does EMDR Work?
No one knows how any forms of psychotherapy work neurologically or in the brain. However we do know that when a person is very upset, their brain cannot process information as it does ordinarily. One moment becomes “frozen in time” and remembering a trauma may feel as bad as going through it the first time because images, sounds, smells and feelings haven’t changed. Such memories have a lasting negative effect that interferes with the way a person sees the world and the way they relate to other people.

EMDR seems to have a direct effect on the way that the brain processes information. Normal information processing is resumed, so following a successful EMDR session, a person no longer relives the images, sounds, and feelings when the event is brought to mind. You still remember what happened, but it is less upsetting. Many types of therapy have similar goals. However, EMDR appears to be similar to what occurs naturally during dreaming or REM ( rapid eye movement) sleep. Therefore, EMDR can be thought of as a physiologically based therapy that helps a person see disturbing material in a new and less distressing way.

What is the actual EMDR session like?
During EMDR, the therapist works with the client to identify a specific problem as the focus of the treatment session. The client calls to mind the disturbing issue or event, what was seen, felt, heard, thought etc., and what thoughts and beliefs are currently held about that event. The therapist facilitates the directional movement of the eyes or other dual attention stimulation of the brain, while the client focuses on the disturbing material, and the client just notices whatever comes to mind without making any effort to control direction or content. Each person will process information uniquely, based on personal experiences and values. Sets of eye movements are continued until the memory becomes less disturbing and is associated with positive thoughts and beliefs about ones self; for example, “I did the best I could.” During EMDR, the client may experience intense emotions, but by the end of the session, most people report a great reduction in the level of disturbance.

How long does EMDR take?
One or more sessions are required for the therapist to understand the nature of the problem and to decide whether EMDR is an appropriate treatment. The therapist will also discuss EMDR more fully and provide an opportunity to answer questions about the method. Once the therapist and client have agreed that EMDR is appropriate for a specific problem, the actual EMDR therapy may begin.

A typical EMDR session last from 60 -90 minutes. The type of problem, life circumstances, and the amount of previous trauma will determine how many treatment sessions are necessary. EMDR may be used within a standard “talking” therapy, as an adjunctive therapy with a separate therapist, or as a treatment all by itself.

What kind of problems can EMDR treat?
Scientific research has established EMDR as effective for post traumatic stress. However, clinicians also report success using EMDR in treatment of the following conditions:

  • personality disorders
  • eating disorders
  • panic attacks
  • performance anxiety
  • complicated grief
  • stress reduction
  • dissociative disorders
  • addiction
  • disturbing memories
  • sexual and/or physical abuse
  • phobias
  • body dysmorphic disorders
  • pain disorders

But does EMDR really work?
Approximately 20 controlled studies have investigated the effects of EMDR. These studies have consistently found that EMDR effectively decreases/eliminates the symptoms of post traumatic stress for the majority of clients. Clients often report improvement in other associated symptoms such as anxiety. The current treatment guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association and the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies designate EMDR as an effective treatment for post traumatic stress. EMDR was also found effective by the US Department of Veterans Affairs and the Department of Defense, The United Kingdom Department of Health, the Israeli National Council for Mental Health, and many of the international health and givernmental agencies. Research has also shown that EMDR can be effecient and rapid treatment. For further references, a bibliograpy of research may be found through EMDR International Association’s web site, www.emdria.org.”

Judy Ingoldsby, MFT - EMDR Specialist in South PasadenaMeet EMDR Specialist: Judy Ingoldsby, M.A., MFT is a Marriage and Family Therapist in private practice in Pasadena and Glendale, CA. Judy has over 23 years experience as a psychotherapist in California, working with adult couples and individuals.  She provides lectures in psychology at Moscow Institute of Psychology and is the former Vice President of the Integration Center, Inc.  She received her Bachelor of Arts in Psychology from University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and a Master of Arts in Clinical Psychology from Pepperdine University.  She has advanced training and certification in EMDR, Objects Relations Therapy and Hypnotherapy and has been a member of California Association of Marriage & Family Therapists (CAMFT) since 1989.

For more information about her practice, please visit: http://www.judyingoldsby.com.  

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